We run various sites in defense of human rights and need support in paying for servers. Thank you.

Cubaverdad on Twitter

Daily Archives: July 7, 2017

Sunwing Airlines flight bound for Cuba had to return to Montreal … Sunwing Airlines flight bound for Cuba that was forced to return … Continue reading
El viceministro de Seguridad de Panamá, Jonathan del Rosario ofreció este viernes a más de un centenar de cubanos varados en Gualaca, el regreso voluntario a Cuba a cambio de un visado de entradas múltiples y $1.650 para convertirse en cuentapropistas. … Click to Continue » Continue reading
Panama's deputy minister of public security on Friday made a final offer to Cuban migrants staying at a temporary shelter in that nation: $1,650, a plane ticket to Havana and … Click to Continue » Continue reading
… international top ups sent to Cuba. Bonuses are added for any … their family and friends in Cuba know that they will receive … . The standard rate to call Cuba with HablaCuba is 69.9 … is a platform dedicated to Cubans living abroad. It is a … Continue reading

El jefe del Pentágono, James Mattis, consideró este jueves que el ensayo con éxito de Corea del Norte de un misil balístico intercontinental no acerca a Washington a la posibilidad de un conflicto armado con el régimen de Pyongyang, reporta EFE.

leer más

Continue reading
… Sunwing Airlines flight bound for Cuba that was forced to return … Continue reading

Un vuelo de Sunwing Airlines con destino a Cayo Coco tuvo que regresar al aeropuerto internacional Trudeau de Montreal, del que había despegado, en la noche de este jueves bajo una escolta de aviones de combate de EEUU debido a un "pasajero indisciplinado".

leer más

Continue reading
… on a window in Old Havana, Cuba. Credit Tomas Munita for The … and China. Nor will Cuban-Americans and Cubans move any closer to reconciliation … and from currying favor with Cuban-American legislators. VICKI HUDDLESTON, SANTA FE … United States Interests Section in Havana, 1999-2002. Continue reading the main … Continue reading
Market research future published a cooked research report on global anti-tank missile market. its expected to grow over CAGR of around 4.25% during 2017-2023 PUNE, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA, July 8, 2017 /EINPresswire.com/ -- Global Anti-Tank Missile … Continue reading
Los migrantes tendrán quince días hábiles para decidirse Continue reading
Market research future published a cooked research report on global sanding pads market. its expected to grow over the CAGR of around 4.19% during 2017 to 2023 PUNE, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA, July 8, 2017 /EINPresswire.com/ -- Global Sanding Pads … Continue reading
Tourism Boom Chokes Havana's Airport

14ymedio, Zunilda Mata, Havana, 4 July 2017 — The passengers leave the
plane and make their way around the buckets catching the leaks from the
roof. They still have a long wait in at baggage claim and have to suffer
under the air conditioning that hardly alleviates the heat. The José
Martí International Airport in Havana is stumbling through
the tourist boom that has brought a volume of passengers its services
and infrastructure find difficult to serve.

The main air terminal in the country received 3.3 million passengers in
the first half of this year, a figure that increased by 27.4% compared
to the same period of the previous year. However, travelers' experiences
are far from satisfactory.

There are few places to eat and the lack is supplies is a problem. "We
only have these two cafeterias up here," says one of the
employees. "Today we did not get any beer and there is no water, we are
only selling coffee in addition to bread with ham and cheese," she told
several customers on Monday.

There is an unfinished wing on the exterior that will be filled with
places to eat. "The financing of this infrastructure was linked to the
construction company Odebrecht and everything was paralyzed by the
corruption scandal in Brazil," says a source from the Ministry of
Construction who preferred to remain anonymous.

"We hope it will be open before the end of the year as an alternative
for travelers and their friends," the official said. "But the building
is one thing and the supply of food and beverages is another; the latter
is the responsibility Cuban Airports and Aeronautical Services Company

We can't do magic. If there is no beer in the country, where are we
going to get it from?" an ECASA employee asks rhetorically, speaking to
this newspaper by phone from the central office. "We have tried to meet
the demand with imported products, but the tourists want to drink a
Cuban beer at the airport," she says.

Hope arrived for the terminal employees when it was announced last
August that French companies Bouygues and Paris Airports had won a
concession to expand and manage the terminal.

"They haven't pounded a single nail here," protests the saleswoman at a
handicrafts stand on the middle floor. Industry sources say that no
feasibility studies have yet been done to start the works. "The French
planners have not even arrived to evaluate the terminal," says a senior
Transport Ministry official adding that the project is waiting for
support from the new French president.

One floor down crowd those waiting for the travelers who arrive in the
country. "This shows a lack of respect," says Manuel Delgado, 58, who
complains that "there is no place to sit, the heat is unbearable and the
cafeteria has no water" while waiting for the Air France flight
returning his daughter, who has been living in Paris.

The bathrooms earn the worst of the opinions of those who wait. "They
smell bad and although the service is free, the employees are asking for
money, in a somewhat disguised way, but they ask for it," says Yesenia,
who came from Matanzas to meet a brother returning from Mexico.

In the women's restroom a female worker holds the roll of paper for
drying hands. "It's not mandatory, but they look askance at you if you
do not give them something," says Yesenia. One of the female employees
asked the customers to exchange for 25 centavo coins in Cuban pesos
(CUP) "for a convertible peso." Finally, a European-looking tourist agrees.

A few meters from the bathroom, located on the third floor, a young man
tries to catch the wifi signal to surf the internet, a service only
offered in the area after immigration and security controls. For every
hour of navigation one must pay 1.50 in Cuban convertible pesos (CUC)
but there is nowhere in the airport "today where they are selling
recharge cards for the Nauta service," he says frustrated.

There are also no hotels nearby for passengers in transit to other
provinces. For two years the Ministry of Tourism (MINTUR) has planned to
build five-star accommodation in the immediate vicinity of the airport,
but the project has not yet materialized. The private sector, however,
has taken the lead from the state and more and more private houses are
renting to tourists in the vicinity of the area.

The problems of infrastructure and services do not end after approaching
the exit doors from the flights. "I was traveling in first class and
they gave me an invitation for the VIP area," says José Mario, a Cuban
who each month takes the Copa Airlines route to Panama working as a "mule."

Numerous trips allow you to accumulate points that you can take
advantage of, from time to time, to travel in more comfort. But the VIP
area has not met their expectations. "They told me I had to wait for
other customers to finish eating, because there were not enough dishes,"
he remembers with annoyance after his failed attempt serve himself some
nuts and cheese from the available buffet.

Jose Mario admits, at least, that the taxi service has improved. More
than a year ago a fixed rate was established from the airport to
different points of the city. "Before the driver decided the price, but
now I know that I must pay 25 CUC from here to my house, not a peso more."

The experience on arrival, on the other hand, does not get much
praise. It varies according to the schedule, the flight and the amount
of luggage. "Sometimes I have spent less than an hour waiting for my
bags, but other times I have spent up to four in front of the luggage
belt," complains the traveler.

Employees agree that the waiting time after the landing fluctuates. "At
night, when large flights arrive from Europe, such as Iberia, Air France
or Aeroflot everything slows down," says one of the doctors waiting for
the national passengers to fill out an epidemiological form.

The pilots themselves have had to explain to the passengers about
departure delays because of not having "enough vehicles to bring the
luggage to the plane".

Added to this is the strict customs control over luggage, whose
thoroughness is not only designed to prevent crime but to control the
bringing of technological devices into the country (such as DVDs,
NanoSations, hard disks or laptops) or large quantities of commonly used
products. The most "meticulously" checked flights are those from the US,
Mexico, Panama, Haiti, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and other regular
routes for the "mules."

In the area before passing through immigration, employees are wandering
around with posters bearing the names of some travelers. Some approach
families with children or newcomers who look like Cubans living
abroad. "For 40 dollars I can pass you without problems from customs,"
whispers a worker to a couple with two children.

For a certain fee employees can avoid passing through the search or
paying for excess imported luggage, a relief for many Cubans living
abroad and arriving loaded with gifts. For each kilo of luggage that
exceeds the limit of 50 kilos, there is a fee that must be paid in CUC,
and the fees also depend on the type of objects transported. For
residents on the island is also very advantageous, since they can only
pay in CUP for their first annual importing of goods.

Jose Mario often resorts to this illegal service. "What I am going to
do?" he justifies himself. "I pay to get myself out of this airport as
soon as possible, because it's unbearable between the heat and the bad

Source: Tourism Boom Chokes Havana's Airport – Translating Cuba -
http://translatingcuba.com/tourism-boom-chokes-havanas-airport/ Continue reading
Cuba: More Implicated in the Interior Ministry's Stolen Documents Case /
Juan Juan Almeida

Juan Juan Almeida, 5 July 2017 — The case is notable for its strict
secrecy and a degree of coercion. The highly irregular trial and
mystifying plight of those already found guilty and sentenced make "the
top secret theft from the Ministry of the Interior (MININT) of the
Republic of Cuba" perhaps the most surprising example of Cuban justice
in the last twenty years.

Though a verdict has been handed down, the legal process is not yet
over. The most recent defendant is Colonel Rafael, who coincidentally
was the principal interrogator during the initial investigation but is
now himself being investigated for leaking information about the
indictment and the locations of those involved.

These post-trial developments are at odds with normal legal procedures.
Though accused on May 9 of high treason, theft and sale of classified
material to foreign governments, encouraging desertion and disobedience
among senior officials, spreading malicious rumors intended to cause
discontent among senior military commanders, personal enrichment,
bribery and abuse of office, none of the defendants have been sent to
prison. They are being detained in three houses in Havana's Siboney
neighborhood, where family members have been allowed to visit some of them.

"Look, Colonel Carlos Emilio Monsanto was sentenced to thirty-seven
years in prison. Major Ernesto Villamontes was sentenced to thirty,
Jorge Emilio Pérez to thirty, Román to twenty-two and the rest got
similar sentences. Do you think they are going to serve those sentences
in houses that are now serving as prisons? People like that are
dangerous whether they are free or locked up. I don't think they are
going to serve those sentences under house arrest and I don't think they
are going to go to prison. Based on available information, it is logical
to believe they will suffer some accident or come down with a sudden
illness as happened to General Abrantes," says a relative of one of the
convicted men with resignation. This person requested anonymity, citing
a non-disclosure agreement that family members were forced to sign in
order to be able to visit their relatives.

"The one thing that is clear is that Ernesto (Villamontes) and the other
defendants were sending money out of country and that they had been
authorized to do so by the former directors of MININT and the country's
top leadership with the goal of investing in businesses and buying
property. The documents were not taken from the ministry's Building A in
order to sell them; they were to be used as protection. And that is

What keeps them safe?

"Corporations like Financiera Ricamar, Financiera Eurolatina and
Financiera Bescanvi Occidental laundered money. Some of these
corporations belong to Panamanian businessmen, including former
president Martinelli. The Panamanian government is currently
investigating the matter. That's why they haven't been sent to prison
yet. On the contrary, the plan is to use them as scapegoats in a
possible prosecution against the former Panamanian president. For better
or worse, this could be significant in a political, media or
international context and would go a long way in covering the tracks of
the Cuban government, just as happened with Cause I and Cause II in 1989."*

*Translator's note: Cause I and Cause II refer to two famous trials of
multiple Cuban military officials. In the first, General of the Western
Army Arnaldo Ochoa was tried and executed by firing squad on charges
including drug trafficking and treason. In a second related trial,
former Minister of the Interior General José Abrantes, was sentenced to
twenty years in prison but died in custody, allegedly of a heart attack,
in 1991.

Source: Cuba: More Implicated in the Interior Ministry's Stolen
Documents Case / Juan Juan Almeida – Translating Cuba -
http://translatingcuba.com/cuba-more-implicated-in-the-interior-ministrys-stolen-documents-case-juan-juan-almeida/ Continue reading
Whom Do They Serve? / Fernando Dámaso

Fernando Damaso, 28 June 2017 — Whether at the municipal or provincial
level, the people's administrative councils are supposed to be looking
out primarily for the interests of their constituents and, in
conjunction with them, carrying out the duties of local governance. But
due to the inaccessible and very undemocratic Cuban electoral system,
that is not the case.

Lacking any real power and without questioning what is meant by "the
people," these councils have for years simply carried out the orders
handed down to them by higher-ups in government without concern for the
needs of their constituents or responding to them in a compelling way.
In a country where every worker was once an employee of the government,
their inefficiency was just part of the broader inefficiency of the
entire system.

With the advent of self-employment, or private sector work, they have
continued to act in the same way, turning a deaf ear to the complaints
and grievances of the self-employed, imposing bureaucratic measures
under the guise that such taxes benefit the weak and needy. This
demagogic, paternalistic position, far removed from reality, is not
fooling anyone.

For evidence one need only look to the government's recent "collisions"
with private-sector taxi drivers, with homeowners in Viñales who rent
out rooms to tourists (the government tried, without success, to force
homeowners to permanently cover over swimming pools they had built on
their properties), with construction crews (whose prices officials have
tried unsuccessfully to regulate), with clothing and handicraft vendors
(who continue to sell these items), with truck drivers transporting
passengers in the backs of their vehicles (who were overwhelmed by
endless and repeated demands for documentation) and many other similar

Even without established organizations to represent them, small groups
of people with shared interests began pushing back against arbitrary
demands by authorities, who were trying to exercise the same sort of
tight control they had always exercised over state-sector workers
without understanding that something had changed: a group or collective
spirit had arisen that was at odds with the authorities' interests. It
is all still very new and appears to be primarily driven by a need for
survival rather than by economic or political demands.

The original sin of the Cuban dissident movement has been that it has
never actually represented any specific segment of society. Instead, it
has been made up of independent agents who have assumed a critical and
combative stance towards the system, gathering around them a few
like-minded individuals. The exception has been the Ladies in White,
which respresents the interests of family members unjustly sentenced to
long prison terms for holding differing opinions.

At the moment, one cannot say that there is a real dissident movement,
one that demands respect and fights for its rights, that represents
specific segments of society, that is united by economic interests. This
is, in truth, what brings about change.

As long as there are no solutions, these segments will grow, develop and
gain strength. And every day the authorities will find it more difficult
to maintain a hegemonic position of force.

*Translator's note: In 2013 the government announced that independent
clothing vendors would no longer be allowed to sell items imported from
abroad, a major source of their inventory. More recently, private truck
owners have been converting their vehicles to accommodate passengers in
order to transport them from one city to another. In spite of the
dangers this presents, such as the absence of seat belts, the service is
more accessible than that of the state-owned bus company and much
cheaper than buses catering to the tourist market.

Source: Whom Do They Serve? / Fernando Dámaso – Translating Cuba -
http://translatingcuba.com/whom-do-they-serve-fernando-dmaso/ Continue reading

El líder de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), Rodrigo Londoño, alias "Timochenko", agradeció este viernes desde Cuba la atención de los médicos de la Isla y los deseos de recuperación recibidos tras sufrir un accidente cerebrovascular el pasado 2 de julio en su país, repora EFE.

leer más

Continue reading
Crisis de maestros: Carreras pedagógicas eximidas de pruebas de ingreso Posted on 4 Julio, 2017 La entrega de carreras pedagógicas en Cuba se disparó en el curso escolar 2016-2017 al otorgarse un total de 29,190 plazas, un exorbitante crecimiento del 92 por ciento con relación al período anterior. El aumento de unas 27,000 carreras pedagógicas […] Continue reading
… about his recent trip to Cuba. Spotlight on the News, now … Continue reading
Abel Prieto ante la tumba de Fidel Castro: Estaremos con Venezuela hasta las últimas consecuencias Posted on 4 Julio, 2017 Por Redacción CaféFuerte El ministro de Cultura, Abel Prieto Jiménez, afirmó que Cuba va a respaldar al gobierno de Venezuela “hasta las últimas consecuencias” y elogió a los venezolanos por evitar que su nación se […] Continue reading
Aerolíneas de EEUU apuestan (a futuro) por La Habana Rolando Cartaya Pese a que la mayoría no alcanza a cubrir los costos operativos a Cuba, y a que algunas han reducido frecuencias, destinos o capacidad, 5 de las grandes líneas aéreas de EE.UU. se disputan por las 21 frecuencias a la capital cubana abandonadas por […] Continue reading
Denuncian persistente operativo frente a sede de Damas de Blanco julio 07, 2017 Ivette Pacheco Rodeada de efectivos policiales se encuentra la sede nacional de las Damas de Blanco, en Lawton, La Habana. La activista Sodrelis Turruella denunció a Radio Martí el fuerte operativo: “En estos momentos todas las calles que tienen acceso a la […] Continue reading
Altos impuestos generan malestar entre cubanos julio 06, 2017 Los excesivos impuestos que pagan los cuentapropistas en Cuba continúan generando malestar entre los cubanos, expuestos a un Sistema Tributario para el que muchos consideran que el país no está preparado. La ley tributaria del 2013 contempla 22 impuestos. Entre ellos están los que pesan sobre […] Continue reading
Multan a Damas de Blanco y las amenazan con prisión si no pagan julio 06, 2017 La opositora Maylén González fue multada con 1.500 pesos por difusión de propaganda, mientras que María Cristina Labrada recibió una multa de 1.100 pesos. Ambas aseguran que no pagarán. La activista Maylén González fue arrestada y multada con 1.500 […] Continue reading
La gran amenaza al comercio con Cuba no es Trump, sino el Gobierno comunista julio 06, 2017 Las regulaciones del Gobierno cubano y los pesados ?? procesos burocráticos han sacudido los esfuerzos para impulsar el comercio y apoyar la inversión privada. El anuncio de Southwest Airlines de la reducción de vuelos a Cuba provocó comentarios […] Continue reading
Seguridad del Estado arresta a una veintena de activistas de Otro18 en La Habana julio 05, 2017 Unos 26 activistas que han expresado su intención de presentarse a candidatos a las elecciones de 2018 en Cuba fueron detenidos cuando se disponían a realizar un taller de preparación. Más de 20 activistas de la iniciativa ciudadana […] Continue reading
Estado de Sats retrata en nueva serie el fracaso del empoderamiento que prometió Obama julio 05, 2017 Idolidia Darias Una nueva serie del proyecto independiente Estado de Sats retrata la dura realidad de los cubanos a los que prometió empoderar el gobierno del entonces presidente Barack Obama cuando anunció el restablecimiento de relaciones entre ambos […] Continue reading

La revista Forbes no cree que el mercado de los viajes de EEUU a la Isla se haya afec

leer más

Continue reading
Odebrecht “no compró favores” en Cuba, según la prensa de la isla El caso de Odebrecht, que se destapó en 2015 durante la investigación por corrupción a la petrolera estatal brasileña Petrobras, involucró a autoridades y ejecutivos de EE.UU. Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Angola, Guatemala, México, Mozambique, Panamá, Perú, República Dominicana y Venezuela. Por: El Día […] Continue reading
Migraciones concedió 828.938 euros en programas sociales para los españoles de Cuba Por Rafa -Julio 7, 2017 Publica la Secretaría del Consejo General de la Ciudadanía Española en el Exterior un informe con datos cifrados de los programas asistenciales destinados por España para sus emigrados en todo el mundo. Presupuesto La Dirección General de Migraciones […] Continue reading
Panamá hace su última oferta a los cubanos varados en Gualaca: $1,650 y un pasaje de regreso MARIO J. PENTÓN mpenton@elnuevoherald.com El viceministro de Seguridad de Panamá, Jonathan del Rosario, ofreció el viernes $1,650, un boleto de regreso a La Habana y una visa de entradas múltiples a los cubanos varados en el campamento de […] Continue reading
… en route from Montreal to Cuba on Thursday, July 6. A … , the flight to Cayo Coco, Cuba, was rescheduled. According to Sunwing … Continue reading
Cuba ya puede recibir envíos de dinero online desde España y Europa Madrid | Julio 06, 2017 (Con informaciones de agencias)- Los cubanos residentes en España y en el resto de Europa ya pueden realizar envíos de dinero de manera online y sin comisiones a Cuba a través de la plataforma TransferZero, tras la reciente […] Continue reading
¿Terrorismo ‘malo’ y terrorismo ‘bueno’? El relativismo moral para contar la historia de Cuba Jueves, julio 6, 2017 | Alberto Méndez Castelló LAS TUNAS, Cuba.- Ahorcamientos, castraciones, apuñalamientos, “el terror planificado”, a decir de Che Guevara, para lograr la “neutralidad de los más”, vimos en LCB La otra guerra, teleserie transmitida por la televisión cubana […] Continue reading
… a 49% interest in a Cuban Golf Resort Development * Says since … Continue reading
Vargas Llosa sobre García Márquez: Al principio ‘era muy poco entusiasta de la revolución’ DDC | Madrid | 7 de Julio de 2017 – 13:54 CEST. El escritor Mario Vargas Llosa habló este jueves en Madrid sobre la obra de Gabriel García Márquez y de la relación que terminó rompiéndose en 1976 tras años de […] Continue reading
¿Inventario o paro laboral? FRANK CORREA | La Habana | 7 de Julio de 2017 – 11:54 CEST. La tienda recaudadora de divisas Oro Negro, perteneciente a la corporación CIMEX, situada en avenida séptima y 292, en Santa Fe, ha sido cerrada “por inventario” a solo seis meses de su inauguración. Un empleado de la […] Continue reading
Menos independencia para cuentapropistas y cooperativistas ORLANDO FREIRE SANTANA | La Habana | 4 de Julio de 2017 – 12:59 CEST. Cada vez se torna más difícil extraer una conclusión acertada de la información que publica la prensa oficialista cubana acerca de las reuniones del Consejo de Ministros. Se va haciendo necesaria una lectura entre […] Continue reading
La rectora de la UCI a Eliécer Ávila: ‘Tú eres un enemigo de la revolución’ DDC | La Habana | 6 de Julio de 2017 – 22:28 CEST. Eliécer Ávila, líder del movimiento político Somos+, lamentó en su perfil de Facebook la actuación de algunos “cuadros” de la Universidad de Ciencias Informáticas (UCI) que, tras […] Continue reading
El Gobierno califica de ‘injerencia’ la resolución sobre derechos humanos aprobada por la Eurocámara AGENCIAS | La Habana | 6 de Julio de 2017 – 18:42 CEST. La Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular (ANPP) manifestó su “enérgico rechazo” a una resolución del Parlamento Europeo que cuestiona al Gobierno de la Isla en derechos humanos, emitida […] Continue reading
¿Cómo se hace una ‘Revolución Energética’ sin piezas de repuesto? JOAN MANUEL NÚÑEZ DÍAZ | Artemisa | 6 de Julio de 2017 – 13:35 CEST. “¿De qué planeta vino él?”, preguntó sarcásticamente la recepcionista del Taller de Servicios de Reparación de Electrodomésticos del municipio artemiseño de Bauta, mientras los presentes se contagiaban de su carcajada. […] Continue reading

El activista de la Unión Patriótica de Cuba (UNPACU) Jorge Cervantes fue trasladado al Hospital Nacional en La Habana, según informó a DIARIO DE CUBA su esposa Gretchen Alfonso Torres.

leer más

Continue reading
Activista recién liberada tendrá que pagar una multa por ‘daños a la propiedad’ DDC | La Habana | 7 de Julio de 2017 – 00:02 CEST. El tribunal municipal de Boyeros, de La Habana, entregó el pasado lunes el documento de término de sanción a favor de la opositora Yaquelín Heredia Morales, pero le notificó […] Continue reading
Amnistía Internacional lanza una ‘acción urgente’ por la libertad de Jorge Cervantes DDC | La Habana | 6 de Julio de 2017 – 19:27 CEST. Amnistía Internacional (AI) lanzó una acción urgente por la “libertad de manera inmediata e incondicional” del activista de la Unión Patriótica de Cuba (UNPACU) Jorge Cervantes, a quien el régimen […] Continue reading
Otro18: El Gobierno condena a prisión a un candidato a las ‘elecciones’ por un hurto que jamás ocurrió DDC | Holguín | 5 de Julio de 2017 – 22:48 CEST. El régimen condenó a seis meses de prisión domiciliaria a Rolando Columbié Patterson, de la plataforma ciudadana #Otro18, en un juicio de seis horas celebrado […] Continue reading

El activista de la Unión Patriótica de Cuba (UNPACU) Reinier Rodríguez Mendoza, paciente de VIH, fue juzgado este miércoles en el Tribunal municipal de Marianao en La Habana.

Las autoridades le piden cuatro años de prisión por los supuestos delitos de desorden público y desacato.

Según explicó a este diario el líder del frente juvenil de UNPACU, Carlos Amel Oliva Torres, "el juicio quedo concluso para sentencia. Lo que no precisaron fecha".

leer más

Continue reading
El trayecto cubre desde el Reparto Eléctrico hasta el Vedado Continue reading