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Human Rights

Havana, January 15 (RHC)-- Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez … commitment to human rights. Cuba participated in the Human … five years, during which Cuba recorded various achievements.  For … presentation in May 2013, Cuba received 292 recommendations, out … Continue reading
March in support of immigrants and asylum seekers in San Diego, California, USA, January 11, 2019. Photo: EFE San Diego, January 14 (RHC)-- In the U.S. city of San Diego, California, dozens of people took to the streets to show support for Central American … Continue reading
… during the National Assembly in Havana, Cuba, July 8, 2016. Ismael Francisco … virtually no concessions in return. Cuban government officials typically deny the … the Madrid-based Cuban Observers of Human Rights Cuba's new … Continue reading
"Queda en evidencia que si bien la crisis humanitaria ocupa los titulares, no debe olvidarse que la represión en Venezuela es brutal y llega a niveles maquiavélicos" Continue reading
La SIP prometió que el año próximo mantendrá la disposición de “denunciar y contrarrestar cada ataque a las libertades de expresión y de prensa” Continue reading

Javier Triana

(EFE).- Después del socialismo y el capitalismo con características chinas, Pekín ha decidido dar una pirueta eufemística más al considerar que sus ciudadanos disfrutan de "derechos humanos con características chinas", una expresión que, según varias ONG, enmascara una realidad de opresión e inmovilismo.

En un mensaje emitido el pasado día 10 con motivo del septuagésimo aniversario de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, el presidente del país, Xi Jinping, mencionó "el desarrollo de los derechos humanos con características chinas", una idea repetida por las autoridades del país asiático en los últimos años.

"Esto va en contra de todo el concepto de los derechos humanos, porque quiere decir que, de alguna forma, no son universales y de aplicación universal, sino que se los moldea de acuerdo a las circunstancias nacionales, en este caso de China", advierte el subdirector regional de Amnistía Internacional, Joshua Rosenzweig.

En opinión de Rosenzweig, las "características chinas" significan que "cualquier protección de los derechos humanos depende de la buena voluntad del Estado", y, aunque admite que es así en algunos casos, considera que esta perspectiva podría llevar implícito que "todo lo bueno emana de la preservación del sistema de partido único" de China.

Para defenderse de las persistentes críticas por las supuestas violaciones de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos (de la que la China precomunista fue firmante en 1948), el Consejo de Estado (Ejecutivo) del país asiático publicó este mes un Libro Blanco titulado "Progreso en derechos humanos durante los 40 años de reforma y apertura en China".

[[QUOTE:El Consejo de Estado publicó este mes un Libro Blanco titulado "Progreso en derechos humanos durante los 40 años de reforma y apertura en China"]]En él, el Ejecutivo asegura que "el Partido Comunista de China (PCCh) siempre ha priorizado los intereses del pueblo" y que "China ha mostrado respeto, protegido y promovido los derechos humanos en el proceso de la reforma y apertura (iniciada en 1978)".

El documento, medio centenar de páginas de retórica oficialista, es un repaso a los logros chinos en materia de crecimiento económico, educación, seguridad social, desarrollo industrial, acceso al agua potable, igualdad, medio ambiente o protección de las minorías, entre otros.

Rosenzweig considera una broma de mal gusto que su publicación coincida con un momento en el que "se está deteniendo de manera arbitraria a grandes números de uigures y kazajos y otros, sin procesos judiciales, en nombre de la seguridad nacional y en contra del extremismo religioso".

El experto de Amnistía se refiere así a las acusaciones, por parte de varias ONG, de detenciones masivas en la provincia noroccidental de Xinjiang, donde se habría internado a más de un millón de supuestos radicales en "campos de reeducación".

Para el Gobierno se trata de "centros vocacionales" donde "se aprenden habilidades acordes con las necesidades laborales" que serán útiles a los internos.

La investigadora especializada en China de la organización defensora de los derechos humanos Human Rights Watch (HRW) Yaqiu Wang señala que Pekín "prioriza los derechos económicos sobre los derechos civiles y políticos, y los del Estado sobre los del pueblo y las comunidades".

El Libro Blanco lo expresa sin ambages: "En los últimos 40 años, China ha trabajado para mejorar su protección de los derechos humanos básicos, centrándose sobre todo en los derechos a la subsistencia y al desarrollo".

Es innegable -y así lo reconocen desde HRW y Amnistía- que China ha progresado en la materia: era una sociedad cuasi medieval hace un siglo, y sus habitantes son ahora libres de elegir qué comer, qué vestir o qué estudiar (algo impensable hace décadas), y con 740 millones menos de pobres en zonas rurales en 2017 que en 1978.

Pero la retórica oficial, alertan las ONG, tiene truco: "Creo que, para el actual Gobierno, el punto de referencia es la Revolución Cultural (una turbulenta década que duró hasta 1976), que acabó justo antes de la reforma y apertura. Si ese es tu punto de referencia -opinan desde Amnistía-, todo va a parecer bueno".

Por el contrario en los últimos años la situación parece haberse deteriorado: "Desde que Xi Jinping subió al poder (en 2012), el Gobierno ha aumentado el control de la sociedad china de manera significativa", precisa Wang a Efe.

"Si un individuo en China -ejemplifica Rosenzweig- tratara de quejarse públicamente de eso, de que la libertad de expresión ha disminuido en los últimos diez años, y aportara estadísticas o ejemplos, creo que esa persona tendría muchas dificultades: podría terminar en la cárcel".

"Los discursos oficiales chinos en el ruedo internacional suelen estar copados de expresiones vagas como 'diálogo constructivo' o 'cooperación para el beneficio mutuo' -apostilla Wang-, mientras que omiten toda mención al seguimiento y la fiscalización por las violaciones de derechos humanos".

Aunque el Libro Blanco reconoce que "China todavía tiene mucho camino por recorrer" en la protección de los derechos humanos y "se enfrenta a muchas dificultades y desafíos" en el ínterin, Rosenzweig considera la actual situación una consecuencia de la carencia más absoluta de voluntad política.

"No es que China no pueda hacerlo (la aplicación de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos), o que la sociedad china no pueda soportar el disfrute de todos los derechos humanos -alerta-, sino que se trata de una decisión meramente política: que el Partido mantenga el monopolio del poder".

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El equipo de 14ymedio está comprometido con hacer un periodismo serio que refleje la realidad de la Cuba profunda. Gracias por acompañarnos en este largo camino. Te invitamos a que continúes apoyándonos, pero esta vez  haciéndote miembro de 14ymedio. Juntos podemos seguir transformando el periodismo en Cuba.

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